Уроки Русского Языка Онлайн Письменности и алфавиты мира
   
 
 
Письменность и алфавиты мира

Источник: www.omniglot.com/russian/writing/alphabets.htm

Alphabets, or phonemic alphabets, are sets of letters, usually arranged in a fixed order, each of which represents one or more phonemes, both consonants and vowels, in the language they are used to write. In some case combinations of letters are used to represent single phonemes, as in the English sh, ch and th.

The Greeks created the first phonemic alphabet when they adapted the Phoenican alphabet to write Greek. They used a number of Phoenician letters that represented consonant sounds not present in Greek to write Greek vowels.

The word alphabet comes, via the Latin word alphabētum, from the Greek word αλφάβητος (alphabētos), which itself comes from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet, α (άλφα/alpha) and β (βήτα/beta). The names of the Greek letters were based on Phoenican letter names. The first two letters of the Phoenican alphabet are 'āleph (ox) and bēth (house).

The best-known and most widely-used alphabets are the Latin or Roman alphabet and the Cyrillic alphabet, which have been adapted to write numerous languages. Most other alphabets are used for a single language or just a few languages.

Живые и используемые сегодня алфавиты и языки

Armenian
Armenian
Bassa
Bassa (Vah)
Cyrillic
Cyrillic
Fraser
Fraser
Georgian (Mkhedruli)
Georgian (Mkhedruli)
Greek
Greek
Kayah Li
Kayah Li
Hangul (Korean)
Korean (hangŭl)
Latin/Roman
Manchu
Manchu
Mongolian
Mongolian
N'Ko
N'Ko
Santali alphabet
Ol Cemet'/Ol Chiki (Santali)
Oirat Clear Script
Oirat Clear Script
Shorthand
Shorthand
Pollard Miao
Pollard Miao
Sutton Sign Writing
Sutton SignWriting
Tai Dam
Tai Dam
Thaana
Thaana
Tifinagh
Tifinagh

Алфавиты, используемые в основном по религиозным и декоративным причинам

Coptic
Coptic
Deseret
Deseret
Fraktur (Deutsches Schrift)
Fraktur
Irish Uncial alphabet
Irish Uncial
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
Futhark (Runic)
Runic

Алфавиты мертвых языков

Avestan
Avestan
Beitha Kukju
Beitha Kukju
Borama (Somali)
Borama (Somali)
Carian alphabet
Carian
Carpathian Basin Rovas
Carpathian Basin Rovas
Caucasian Albanian
Caucasian Albanian
Dalecarlian runes
Dalecarlian runes
Elbasan
Elbasan
Etruscan
Etruscan
Georgian (Asomtavruli)
Georgian (Asomtavruli)
 Georgian (Nuskhuri)
Georgian (Nuskhuri)
Glagolitic
Glagolitic
Gothic alphabet
Gothic
Hungarian Runes
Hungarian Runes / Székely-Hungarian Rovás
Khazarian Rovas
Khazarian Rovas
Lycian alphabet
Lycian
Lydian alphabet
Lydian
Meroïtic
Meroïtic
Ogham
Ogham
Old Italic
Old Italic
Old Permic
Old Permic (Abur)
Orkhon / Old Turkic (Göktürk)
Orkhon / Old Turkic
Osmanya (Somali)
Osmanya (Somali)
Phrygian
Phrygian
Todhri
Todhri
Uighur vertical alphabet
Uighur

Please note

transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are used extensively throughout this website. The IPA transcriptions are the letters and other symbols which appear in square bracketts, like this [b], [p]. etc.

You can learn which sounds are represented by these letters and symbols at:
http://www.unil.ch/ling/page30184.html
http://www.unil.ch/ling/page12580.html (en français)

Other types of script

Abjads, Alphabets, Syllabic alphabets, Syllabaries, Semanto-phonetic writing systems, Undeciphered scripts, Alternative writing systems, Your con-scripts, A-Z index, Direction index, Languages by writing system, Language index

   Показывать по 
1 Стандарты старословенского кириллического письма
2 Pollard Miao
3 Shorthand
4 Kalmyk
5 Santali alphabet
6 N'Ko alphabet
7 Mongolian
8 Manchu alphabet
9 Latin alphabet
10 Korean
11 Kayah Li
12 Greek alphabet
13 Fraser alphabet
14 Cyrillic
15 Bassa
16 Armenian
17 Uyghur
18 Phrygian
19 Somali (af Soomaali)
20 Orkhon / Old Turkic
21 Old Permic alphabet
22 Old Italic alphabets
23 Ogham
24 Meroïtic alphabet
25 Lydian
26 Lycian
27 Khazarian Rovas
28 Hungarian Runes
29 Gothic alphabet
30 Glagolitic alphabet
31 Georgian
32 Etruscan alphabet
33 Elbasan
34 Dalecarlian Runes
35 Caucasian Albanian
36 Carpathian Basin Rovas
37 Carian
38 Somali
39 Beitha Kukju
40 Avestan
41 Runic alphabet
42 Old Church Slavonic (словѣньскъ)
43 Irish uncial alphabet
44 German (Deutsch)
45 Deseret alphabet
46 Coptic
47 Tifinagh
48 Thaana script
49 Tai Dam alphabet
50 Sutton SignWriting
 

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